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Doubled Die Classification

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The author's system of designating die numbers to doubled Dies as they are added to the system would be complete in itself if all doubled dies occurred in the same manner. Being that this is not the case, we turn to a system of "classes" of doubling to further describe the doubling on a given coin. Doubled dies are classified using a system originally published by John A . Wexler in his 1984 book, The Lincoln Cent Doubled Die. Each of the eight different classes of doubling are unique and readily discernible if one knows what to look for. The classes of doubling are used throughout this site to help visitors visualize what a doubled die might look like just by looking at the die number and classification. Each is explained below as it is currently used by the Combined Organization of Numismatic Error Collectors of America (CONECA), who purchased the system from John Wexler and still uses it today. Courtesy of

Doubled Die Classification

Class I - Rotated Hub Doubling

Used to describe doubling that occurs when a hub is rotated from an axis near the center of the design between hubbings. The rotation between hubbings is described as being either counterclockwise (CCW) or clockwise (CW) in direction.

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Class II - Distorted Hub Doubling

This class of doubling occurs when two separate hubs are used to make a die, and one of the hubs is warped or distorted. This style of doubling is spread toward the
edge (E) or center (C) of the die.

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Class III - Design Hub Doubling

Occurs when the design is changed between the hub used for the first hubbing and the second hubbing. A good example of this would be the different 1960 small date over large date (or vice versa) varieties.

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Class IV - Offset Hub Doubling

This type of doubling, instead of having a clock-like turn in the hubbings, has a shift in direction between hubbings. Spread is in a cardinal direction, usually described simply with north, south, east, or west. A good example in this case is the famous 1983P cent DDR. All design elements are spread to the north.

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Class V - Pivoted Hub Doubling

Another of the clock-like hub rotations, but the main difference between this class and class I is that this type of doubling has a pivot point near the rim of the die instead of near the center of the die. This causes the doubling to be stronger on one side of the coin than the other. A good example here is the well known 1995 cent DDO. The pivot point is near the date on the coin, hardly any doubling is noticeable there, while LIBERTY on the opposite side of the design is heavily doubled.

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Class VI - Distended Hub Doubling

In this style of doubling the devices on the hub actually flatten on the hub between hubbings on the die. The result is fatter than normal design elements or skewed letters and numbers. This is usually more prevelant toward the edge of the design than in the middle. A good example to see is a 1943 doubled die in which the date is nearly twice as thick as normal due to a distorted hub. This type of doubling is often not associated with the presence of separation lines or notching at the corners of the design elements.

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Class VII - Modified Hub Doubling

This type of doubling occurs when a design element is ground off of a hub (although not completely) and replaced. An example would be a known 1963D cent doubled die in which the 3 in the date was too low on a hub. This doubling only shows in the 3 of the date since that was the only design element in which a modification took place.

Class VIII - Tilted Hub Doubling

This class of doubling occurs when a hubbing is not aligned properly, but also is not aligned squarely with the die. The result is doubling only on one area of the die, usually somewhere along the rim. This is the newest recognized class of doubled die.